A-Flute is the highest flute size and when combined with an inner and outer facing, it is the thickest. Sometimes known as coarse flute.
Papers covered on one or both sides with abrasive powder, eg emery, sand paper etc.
Ability of paper or board to take up or retain aqueous solutions; printing inks, varnishes and the like.
Duplicator, blotting and filter papers are the best known; drying royal, matrix paper and towelling are other examples.
That part of the stock which is not rejected by cleaning and/or screening.
A term describing paper and board that can be used with anything that may be tarnished or otherwise harmed by acid.
(1) the moisture content of a substance when in equilibrium with the surrounding atmosphere;
(2) woodpulp contains approximately 10% of moisture, paper 8% of moisture.
The term used in papermaking for aluminium sulphate. Its action on rosin size is to precipitate the size upon the fibres giving them a degree of water repellency.
The second flute size and has lower arch heights that A, and more flutes per metre. B-flute is used for high speed, automatic packing lines and for pads, dividers, partitions and other forms of inner packing.
Blanc fix of Barium Sulphate, high white loading. Used for coating photocopier base papers and lithos.
The mechanical treatment of the fibres in water to increase surface area, flexibility and promote bonding when dried.
Thin printing paper, maximum of 5ogsm, opaque. It is intended specially for use in deluxe productions; eg bibles, dictionaries and high quality publicity productions. Bible paper indicates a paper containing at least 25% rag.
A substance that will decompose as the result of action by bacteria and other living organisms.
Very absorbent and bulky, woodfree, sometimes made from a pulp of cotton or wool fibres 1 20-300gsm.
Biological diversity in nature - influenced by man through construction, cultivation and raw material supply. Modern silviculture tries to preserve the biodiversity of nature.
Papers of 220 gsm and over are generally called boards. They are most often of more than one ply.
Bio-chemical Oxygen Demand.
Strength test. The maximum loading before collapse.
Statement printed on a corrugated fibreboard box or solid fibreboard box testifying that all applicable container board requirements of the carriers have been observed. It identifies and locates the box maker.
Paper or board that is discarded at any stage during its manufacture and is usually repulped. There are 2 kinds - wet broke, which Is accumulated at the wet end of the papermaking machine; dry broke which is accumulated at any stage on the dry end of the machine, trimmings from the reeling, slitting and cutting operations, as well as paper or board rejected during sorting.
The number obtained by dividing the thickness, In micrometers of paper or board, by its grammage. i.e. mass per unit volume.
C-Flute is thinner than A-Flute and thicker than B-Flute. It offers good cushioning, staking and printing properities. C-Flute is the most widely used.
A machine Intended to smooth or otherwise finish the paper and consisting essentially of a certain number of superimposed rolls of which only one is power driven.
The thickness of a sheet of paper measured under standard test conditions.
A material of defined thickness and weight made from one or more layers of fibrous cellulose material to form a rigid or semi-rigid construction.
Paper made from chemical woodpulp having good strength and a rough surface.
A steel, wood or cardboard tube on which paper is reeled, or re-reeled.
Pulp made by cooking the wood in the present of chemical agents (acids or alkali) which eliminates most of the non fibrous material.
A mineral, obtained largely from Cornwall, used by papermakers to obtain finish and consistency; also for coating art and chromo paper. Also called Kaolin.
A board made from waste paper used mainly in packaging, especially with a white liner and coating.
The system of operating a paper or board making machine whereby the water drained from the sheet during formation is collected and returned for re-use Instead of being discharged to waste.
The felts, wires and fabrics used on a papermaking machine.
Paper to which a coating has been applied on one or both sides, using a mix of clay or carbonates and latex to create a high quality printing surface.
Bone dry concentration of fibre in grammes per 100 ml of suspension. Ratio for solid to liquid expressed as a percentage.
Materials unsuitable for papermaking, present in some raw materials and waste paper.
A manufacturing plant which uses paper to make paper-based products, such as packaging or consumer products.
Consists of one or more sheets of fluted paper stuck between fiat sheets of paper or board.
The machine that actually makes the corrugated board from fluting and liner papers.
Paper used to form the fluted part of the corrugated board.
Same as TMP only chips are also sprayed with chemicals.
Deformation of a sheet of paper or board over all its surface, which therefore tends to roll up into the form of a cylinder.
Die Cut Container.
Hollow cylinder of wire gauze, which consolidates the wet web on the wire and may produce a watermark.
The untrimmed edge of the web of paper as it comes off the machine. (Also used to denote the width of the web).
Cuts and scores formed on corrugated sheets with a stell rule die like a biscuit cutter.
Paper or board changes in its dimension and flatness with variation in its moisture content and its termed dimensionally stable when such changes are of a low order.
Thin blade of wood, metal or plastic, placed against rolls on the machine to keep them clean and smooth.
Board comprising liner, fluting, liner, fluting, liner.
A multi ply construction of a board made predominately from mechanical pulp but with a bleached chemical pulp liner.
Has a very high number of flutes per metre which gives flat surface for high quality printing. It is one fourth the thickness of C-Flute. Sometimes known as extra fine flute.
A coarse grass from Southern Spain and Northern Africa, employed principally by English and Scottish papermakers. Papers made from Esparto have a good writing and printing surface, are opaque and of good bulking properties. They are largely used for lithographic printing, for book production and as body papers for coating.
Fluting of height 0.75mm. Also known as N flute or micro flute.
Form of linerboard usd as the flat constituents of a corrugated fibreboard sheet.
A container made of either corrugated or solid fibreboard.
Fine thread-like structure that fibres are composed of. They are often of more than one ply.
Freeing of the fibrils from within the fibre during the beating/refining process.
Measure of the resistance of the flutes in corrugated board to a crushing force applied perpendicular to the surface of the board.
A type of printing process where the machine may also slot, fold and glue to produce a finished case.
One of the wave or arch shapes. These letters define the type of corrugated material in terms of the number of corrugations per unit length and height. Paper that has been formed into the flutes that make up the ridged part of the corrugated board between the liners.
The manner in which the fibres of a sheet of paper or board are distributed, disposed and intermixed to constitute the sheet.
The terms applied to the standard type of paper machine which was produced by Fourdrinier about 1800.
The rate of water drainage from a fibre/water mixture. Decreased by beating to produce a wet’ stock, i.e. drainage is slow.
Mixture of fibre and additives used in a particular paper, I.e. ingredients and their proportions.
A woodfree paper. Transparent, glazed and polished on both sides.
Paper free of mechanical pulp, highly resistant to grease. Mainly used for the wrapping of greasy products.
Mass per unit are in gsm
The original manner in which all paper was made. So called from the fact that the sheet is formed by a workman dipping a mould into the pulp vat and taking up sufficient ‘stuff’ to form a sheet of paper of the required substances. A peculiar movement Is required to felt the fibres together, and this is the only acquired after long practice and experience.
A tank supplying papermaking stock under a controlled pressure.
Mills which produce paper from pulp on site e.g. timber in one end, paper out at the other.
First reel of paper produced after the papermaking process, before it is either slit into smaller reels or transferred for further processing.
A value obtained by a laboratory test procedure for indirectly indicating the lignin content, relative hardness, or bleachability of higher lignin content pulps, usually with yields of 70 per cent or more. It is determined by the number of milliliters of tenth normal permanganate solution (0.1 KMn04) which is absorbed by 1 gram of oven dry pulp under specific conditions, and is then corrected to 50 percent consumption of permanganate.
an important grade of recovered paper for making recycled corrugated cases
Solid pulp board produced by the sulphate process with or without bleaching.
Made from different pulps, having the appearance of pure kraft and used for wrapping and packaging purposes.
Papers with a ribbed appearance produced by a mould or dandy roll which has wires parallel to each other and not woven.
The combination of two or more materials using a bonding agent.
A method of printing from type in relief, which is inked and applied to the paper.
Unlined chipboard that is modified by use of a thin layer of different pulp to provide a liner.
A non cellulose material found in vegetable plants that may be considered as a binding agent or cement between the fibres of the plant.
Fine white pigment in the form of powder or slurry used to improve smoothness, opacity, brightness and dimensional stability of paper and board.
The direction of a sheet or web of paper corresponding with the direction of the flow of ‘stuff’ on the papermachine.
Paper or board, which is pigment coated at the end of the paper or board-making machine.
Paper which is dried on the papermaklng machine by a very large cylinder with a polished surface. The paper has a smooth and rough side. MG papers are used for wrapping papers and posters.
A set of steel rollers at the end of a paper machine between which the paper is passed to give it a smooth surface.
Where the boxmaker joins the box together by taping, gluing or stitching.
Pulp made by the grinding of steamed or boiled groundwood (without the addition of chemical agents).
An instrument for measuring small distances accurately, e.g. the thickness of paper.
Furnish layer of a board situated between the two external furnish layers or between an underliner and the back furnish layer.
A variegated effect produced by the mixture of differently dyed fibres or a drip of colour on the wet pulp. When deliberately produced can also be known as ‘granite' or ‘silurian’ effect.
The Implement with which hand made paper is made.
Specially coated papers which will react to pressure to produce duplicate copies without the use of carbon.
The load on the web passing between two rolls which run together to press the sheet.
Northern Bleached Hardwood Kraft
Northern Bleached Softwood Kraft
an important grade of recovered paper for making recycled corrugated cases
Paper which is specially made for reading machines, having a tight specification on brightness, opacity and smoothness.
Paper of usable size obtained as a by-product when larger sheets or reels are cut down to the size of the order.
A grade of waste paper, mostly used or unused magazines.
A compressed matted vegetable substance in thin flexible sheet form, being the precipitate of a fibrous pulp in water.
Paper is classified into different grades according to the end use, the pulp used and the treatment of the paper.
A measure of the active acidity or alkalinity of a solution. A value of 7.0 is neutral.
A method of printing by an engraving process.
A term applied comprehensively to the many varieties of papers used for printing purposes.
A graph showing the variations in grammage moisture content or other property from point to point on paper web, either across or along the machine direction.
A ream of paper in which the sheets are folded in half, rather than flat.
The two main rag fibres used in paper making are cotton and linen, rag paper consists of 25-60% rag fibre and the rest is chemical wood pulp.
A term denoting a number of sheets of paper ranging from 480 to 516, most commonly 500.
The mass of water vapour actually contained in a given volume of air expressed as a percentage of the maximum mass of water vapour that could be contained in that same volume at the same temperature.
The percentage of the amount of a loading or additive added to the stock that is retained in the final sheet of paper.
Regular Slotted Container - or FEFCO 0201 - or ordinary box.
The department of the paper mill, sometimes called the Finishing House, where paper is sorted and counted.
A crease in corrugated board to allow folding.
Where 2 flaps meet.
Fibre that has been used before, e.g. recovered paper.
Generally rag paper, always woodfree, watermarked and chemically impregnated. Very reactive and strong. Security papers also carry identification marks which help to prevent counterfeiting. Used for making bank notes, cheques etc.
One piece of corrugated fluting glued to one liner.
One corrugated flute glued between two liners.
Non-fibrous materials used in papermaking to control the absorbency of paper. Rosin, Alum, starch and gelatine are the most commonly used.
Addition of size and chemicals during manufacturing process or by coating to control absorbency.
Board made of one or more plies of bleached chemical pulp.
Terms used to describe the papermaking material in all stages, but usually referring to the wet pulp before it is fed onto the paper machine.
Devices situated under a part of the wire which withdraw water and air from the rapidly consolidating web, also used in felt cleaning etc.
A quality wrapping paper, blue or purple, principally from waste paper and formerly used for sugar bags.
Machine for giving paper a very smooth surface by passing it through a series of alternate metal and composition rolls, revolving with high speed and pressure.
Used as the outer layer of a corrugated construction, the material being made partly from chemical pulp and partly from waste paper.
Involves the grinding of chips under pressure and at a high temperature.
Absorbent paper used for a variety of hygienic purposes.
Any type of paper made from pulp that was not treated in any bleaching process.
Paper which comes directly from the paper machine and goes through no additional surface treatment before it is used.
Paper made from pure bleached chemical pulp, which goes through a treatment of sulphuric acid giving it a lasting resistance to grease penetration. This paper is used for wrapping of moist or greasy foodstuffs.
Pulp manufactured and used for the first time.
Designs impressed into paper while in course of manufacture by means of a projecting wire, on the mould, or in the case of machine made qualities on the dandy roll. Watermarks were employed as early as 1282. They served to identify the product of each paper mill and the designs chosen (many of them extremely complicated) also expressed emblematically the tenets of the manufacturers, which were handed down traditionally from father to son. It was customary, and the custom has survived until the present day, for paper mills to use similar designs in common. These standard designs were triflingly modified by each individual maker; they have in many cases been the origin of modem terminology, such as Foolscap, Pott, Post and so forth.
The curve of a non-flat board.
Papers to which this term applies retain an appreciable percentage of their mechanical strength after soaking in water, and are made by the addition of a resin to the stock during paper manufacture. This resin cements the fibres together and the bond tends to improve with age. The advantages of printing maps on, or making certain wrappings from, wet strength paper are obvious.
A multi ply construction made predominantly from selected waste paper.
Papers and boards containing no fibres other than those derived from chemical wood pulping processes i.e. contains no lignin.
Wood reduced to a pulp for subsequent papermaking processes; can be either mechanical, chemical or combination; TMP and CTMP.
A scored and slotted sheet that is machine assembled around a product to make a finished box.
Part of a tree between the bark and the pith which forms the mechanical structure that constitutes the wood from which the fibre is obtained for use in pulp and papermaking.
Ratio of total amount of raw material entering a pulp and papermaking operation to the equivalent product output.
The strength of paper and board as related to the force and measured by means of tension applied to the surfaces of the test sample.